According to the legend, Bosa - in West Sardinia - was founded by Calmedia, daughter of Sardo, eponymous hero of the early inhabitants of the island.
Of Phoenician origins, Bosa, whose name is certified by an inscription that dates back to 800b.C., developed during the Punic-Roman age.
The area during the 11th century became property of the ligurian Malaspina family that built their castle on Serravalle hill, where in 1112 rose the first core of the present centre of the town.
After a short period under Giudici d'Arborea, Bosa with the Catale-Aragonese conquest, in 1330 was given in feud to the Catalan Pietro Ortiz. With Mariano IV, the town came back to Arborea and remained property of this Sardinian family for about a century.
Won back by Catalan-Aragonese, it became the property of Giovanni di Villamarì in 1468, and then became a royal property under the Spariard King Filippo II.
When you go to Bosa through the old three arches bridge, immediately you can see the Cathedral of Immacolata, with its characteristic little domes abd a big bell tower. It's an important example of Romanesque style. Inside there are three naves. The central one is covered by wood girders and the lateral naves by cross vaults, scanned from dividing arches. The facade shows arches decorates with high relieves representing the symbol of the four Evangelists. On the top of the portal are present the apostles Peter and Paul, the Madonna with child and St. Costantino de Castra who ordered the building of the first part of the Church. Very important also is, inside, the inscription dating back to the foundation of the cathedral.
Here starts the characteristic Vittorio Emanuele Avenue, the main street of Bosa, flanked with houses quite high with typical "important" balconies and lobbies.
Going down the road you arrive at the little Church of the Rosario, with its characteristic prejoceting two-faced clock and a high bell tower. Then there is the Constitution Square in which there is a big marble fountain dating 1800 and the Santa Croce Church, decorated inside by Emilio Scherer.
In the town you can admire the church of Nostra Signora del Carmelo, with a front in "Piedmontese late Baroque" style (built in 1779 on the ruins of the Church Nostra Signora del Soccorso) and near there the church of San Giovanni Battista, an example of great value of Gothic Catalan style built in the XIV century.
Some other churches of Bosa are St Antonio Extra-muros in Gothic-Catalan style (XVI century) and the monastery "Cappuccini" with its Church Santa Maria degli Angeli.
Other ones are Santa Maria del Mare and Santa Teresina in the old town of Bosa, and St. Eligio, St. Martino, St. Cosma e Damiano, St. Giusta and St. Giorgio, St. Maria di Caravetta in the country near the city, open just one day at the year, during holy festivals.
In the open country, Basilica San Pietro extra muros (probably the old cathedral of the diocese of Bosa) and especially Malaspina Castle deserve a visit.
The latter was built in 1112 (date discussed) and enlarged in 1300, when the big tower on its right side was erected in order to defend themselves against Aragonese invasion.
An area of the town that deserves a mention is also the "Sas conzas" quarter, the most significant architectonic complex of the Bosa of the mineteenth-century. It was the centre of a flourishing tan industry that ended in 1962 with the closure of the last company.
In the territory of the municipality of Bosa you can find three different environments:
- fluvial landscape, characterised by the presence of Temo river and its valley;
- volcanic reliefs landscape, marked by volcanic mountain reliefs;
- coastal area, rich in promontories and inlets.
At this point, it is important to mention the Nature Reserve of Badde Aggiosu, Marrargiu, and Mannu Mountain and the Biomarine Park of Marrargiu Cape.
The Nature Reserve of Badde Aggiosu, Marrargiu and Mannu Montain has a great national and European faunal importance because of the presence of the biggest group of griffon vultures over the national territory (80% of the national population). Moreover, other avifaunal species like the real kite, the golden eagle, the Bonelli eagle and the peregring hawk can be found.
The Biomarine Park of Capo Marrargiu includes the stretch between the mouth of the Temo and the little island of Sa Pagliosa.
It is important to mention the rich presence of birdlife that includes aquatic birds, like the Corsican gull, the kingfisher and the cormorant, and raptors like the griffon, the peregring hawk, the golden eagle, the real kite.
One of the more interesting stretches of the coast from the naturalistic point of view is around Marrargiu Cape. Seabeds, characterized by the presence of canyons and caves up to the depth of 50-60 metres, are rich in diversified ichthyic fauna. Moreover the presence of the monk seal, threatened by world-wide extinction, deserves particular attention.
The seabed around Capo Marrargiu is rich in coral, that goldsmiths of Bosa use to create precious jewels.